Colitis is an inflammation of the colon, also known as the large intestine. If you have colitis, you will have abdominal discomfort and agony. This discomfort might be minor and recurring over time, or severe and appear suddenly.
There are various forms of colitis, and treatment differs based on the type.
Causes and types
The causes of colitis are used to classify the different forms of colitis.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of two types of inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn’s disease is the other.
UC is a chronic condition that produces inflammation and bleeding ulcers in the large intestine’s inner lining. It usually starts in the rectum and progresses to the colon.
The most prevalent kind of colitis is ulcerative colitis (UC). It happens when the immune system overreacts to bacteria and other things in the digestive tract, but no one knows why.
Proctosigmoiditis, which affects the rectum and lower region of the colon; left-sided ulcerative colitis, which affects the left side of the colon commencing at the rectum; and pancolitis, which affects the entire large intestine, are common kinds of UC.
Pseudomembranous colitis (PC) is caused by Clostridium difficile overgrowth (C. diff). This type of bacteria is normally found in the intestine, but it is not harmful because “good” bacteria balance it.
Certain drugs, particularly antibiotics, have the potential to harm beneficial microorganisms. This permits C. diff to take control and produce toxins that cause inflammation.
Ischemic colitis (IC) develops when blood flow to the colon is suddenly cut off or reduced, ischemic colitis (IC) develops. Blood clots can cause a sudden obstruction. The most common reason for recurrent IC is atherosclerosis or the accumulation of fatty deposits in the blood arteries that supply the colon.
Underlying problems frequently cause this type of colitis. Vasculitis, an inflammatory illness of the blood vessels, is one example.
Diabetes, colon cancer, and dehydration
loss of blood
Obstruction or blockage of the heart
injury or trauma
Although it is uncommon, IC can occur as a side effect of some medications, such as fibrates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). More research is required to understand all medicines that may cause completely.
Microscopic colitis is a medical disorder that can only be diagnosed by examining a tissue sample from the colon under a microscope. First, a doctor will search for evidence of inflammation, such as lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Doctors sometimes divide microscopic colitis into lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis.
Lymphocytic colitis is diagnosed when a significant number of lymphocytes are seen. The colon tissues and lining, on the other hand, are not abnormally thickened.
Collagenous colitis occurs when the colon’s lining thickens due to a buildup of collagen beneath the outermost layer of tissue.
Doctors are unsure what causes microscopic colitis. However, they know that some people are more vulnerable to the illness. Individuals who are at a higher risk include:
Smokers who currently smoke
That born female, those with a history of an autoimmune condition, those over the age of 50, and those taking specific drugs
Proton pump inhibitors, for example, are a reliable source (PPIs)
inhibitors of selective serotonin reuptake (SSRIs)
Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs)
The following are the most prevalent symptoms of microscopic colitis:
Watery diarrhea, abdominal bloating, and abdominal pain are all symptoms of persistent watery diarrhea.